A PHASE I STUDY OF XL019, A SELECTIVE JAK2 INHIBITOR, IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY MYELOFIBROSIS, POST-POLYCYTHEMIA VERA, OR POST-ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTHEMIA MYELOFIBROSIS
This is an abstract that was presented at ASH’s annual meeting on Sunday, December 7, 2008: 4:45 PM 304-306-308 – South (Moscone Center)
JAK2 V617F has been identified as a constitutive activating mutation in approximately half of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). MF, a myeloproliferative disorder comprised of primary myelofibrosis and the clinically indistinguishable entities of post-polycythemia vera or post essential thrombocythemia MF, has been reported to have a median survival of 4 years [Dupriez et al. (1996) Blood 88:1013-18]. No effective therapies exist for patients with MF. XL019 is a potent, highly selective and reversible inhibitor of JAK2 which may have utility in treating MF, by ameliorating hepato-splenomegaly, constitutional symptoms, and progressive anemia. The objectives of this phase 1 study include safety evaluation, preliminary assessments of efficacy using International Working Group (IWG) response criteria for MF, and evaluation of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic endpoints. Pharmacodynamic evaluations include quantitative PCR for peripheral blood JAK2 V617F allele burden and erythropoietin-independent colony formation. In addition, plasma and fixed blood samples are being collected to evaluate changes in protein biomarkers and JAK2 signaling pathways. To date, XL019 has been studied in 21 patients over multiple dose levels ranging from doses of 25 mg to 300 mg using different schedules of administration (3 weeks on, 1 week off; QD; and QMWF). Median age was 64 years (range, 47-87 years) and 16 patients (76%) carried the JAK2V617F mutation. Additionally, one patient had a MPLW515F mutation in the absence of a JAK2 mutation. No treatment-related hematologic adverse events (i.e. thrombocytopenia, anemia, neutropenia) have been observed to date. Reversible low-grade peripheral neuropathy (PNP) was observed in 7/9 patients treated at daily doses of ≥100 mg (Grade 1: 5 patients; Grade 2: 2 patients). XL019 doses below 100 mg using 2 different dosing schedules are currently being evaluated. To date, XL019 has resulted in reductions in splenomegaly and leukocytosis, stabilization of hemoglobin counts, improvements in blast counts, and resolution or improvement in generalized constitutional symptoms. The median spleen size in 15 patients measured below the costal margin by palpation was 14cm (range, 3-26cm). Three of 15 patients with palpable splenomegaly at baseline were JAK2 V617F mutation negative and did not experience spleen size reduction. Twelve of 12 (100%) evaluable patients with an activating mutation (JAK2 V617F: 11 patients; MPLW515F: 1 patient) experienced reduction in spleen size and 5 (42%) had a ≥50% decline from baseline. Ten of 11 patients with JAK2V617F activating mutations and baseline constitutional symptoms, reported improvements in generalized constitutional symptoms which include pruritus and fatigue. No significant non-hematologic or hematologic toxicity has been observed at the current dose level. On 25 mg dosing schedules, no signs of PNP have been observed with a follow-up period of up to 4 months. Overall, XL019 has demonstrated encouraging clinical activity and is generally well tolerated.